Egyptian Museum Visit Guide: Top 19 Highlights You Can't Miss

Egyptian Museum | Introduction

The Egyptian Museum ( Egyptian Museum ) is located in the heart of Cairo and is one of the must-visit attractions in Cairo. Built in 1902 and designed by the renowned French architect Marcel Dourgnon, the museum houses over 120,000 invaluable Egyptian archaeological artifacts. It is one of the world's richest museums in terms of ancient Egyptian relics, including treasures of the pharaohs, mummies, and ancient Egyptian artworks. Due to its extensive collection, it is recommended to allocate at least half a day to a full day for your visit.

Egyptian Museum | Transportation

The Egyptian Museum is located near the bustling Tahrir Square in the heart of Cairo, making it very accessible. The most convenient way to get here is to take the metro to Tahrir Square station and then walk for about five minutes. Both Line 1 and Line 2 of the metro pass through this station. Of course, you can also take an Uber or walk to the museum.

Egyptian Museum | Tickets & Notes

The opening hours of the Egyptian Museum are from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM. Due to the large number of visitors and strict security controls, we went through three security checks before entering the museum. It is recommended to buy tickets online in advance to avoid having to spend extra time queueing. Self-guided tour tickets can be purchased online (link). Some information online mentions audio guides, but upon inquiry, the Egyptian Museum currently does not offer audio guides. If you need a guided tour, you can hire a tour guide. Many local day tours that include the Egyptian Museum also provide guided services.

Day trip including Egyptian Museum

Egyptian Museum | Historical Background

The Egyptian Museum is a very old museum, established in 1902 by the Frenchman Mariette. Many people say that the Egyptian Museum itself is a display of the history of Egyptian archaeology. To understand this statement, we need to start with the historical background of the Egyptian Museum.

In the mid-19th century, the discovery of antiquities in Egypt increased significantly, with many artifacts being illegally excavated and smuggled to Europe and other regions. As a result, the Egyptian government began to recognize the necessity of protecting and regulating the export of cultural relics. In 1858, French archaeologist Auguste Mariette, commissioned by the Egyptian government, established the Egyptian Antiquities Service (Service des Antiquités de l’Égypte). Mariette founded the first antiquities museum in Boulaq, showcasing artifacts he had excavated in Saqqara and Giza. Later, the museum was damaged by a flood, and with the ongoing increase in the number of artifacts and continuous archaeological excavations requiring more space, the modern Egyptian Museum officially opened in 1902.

Egyptian Museum | Muse-See Highlights

Modern museums typically have clear explanations and well-planned layouts, but the Egyptian Museum's exhibit arrangement remains in the nineteenth-century style, focusing on quantity—the more items, the better. Moreover, aside from displaying ancient artifacts, the Egyptian Museum also serves an important function of reviewing the export of artifacts. Therefore, the way exhibits are presented is more akin to an artifact warehouse. Many small items have not been moved since 1902. Many exhibits either have no explanations or only feature descriptions of the item’s age and shape from the time of their application. Without some prior understanding of ancient Egyptian artifacts, it is easy to get lost in the vast sea of exhibits.

The Egyptian Museum is currently divided into two floors: the lower floor is generally arranged by chronological order, while the upper floor is mostly themed displays. So, how should you visit the museum effectively? Overall, I recommend following the historical sequence for a coherent experience. After entering the main entrance, start on the first floor. After viewing Room 43 in the center, head to the left corridor. You can sequentially visit exhibits from the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom periods. Then proceed to the second floor to view Tutankhamun's treasures and other special exhibitions. Once you have finished the second floor, return to the first floor to complete your tour with the Greco-Roman exhibits.

Because the collection of the Egyptian Museum is truly vast, it is impossible to explain everything in a single article. Therefore, below we will provide an overview of the most important artifacts according to the mentioned route. For other artifacts, it is recommended that individuals focus on what they find most interesting, otherwise, you won't be able to see everything in just one day.

Note: Since some of the exhibits are being moved to the new museum in Giza after 2021, the order and location of the route may change at any time, but if you have a general idea of the overall history of the museum and the chronology of the exhibition rooms on site, you should be able to work out a similar flow of the visit.

Before the Old Kingdom Period

Narmer Palette

  • Location: Room 43, the room directly in front after entering from the ground floor entrance.
  • Era: Approximately created in the 31st century BCE, belonging to the Early Dynastic Period of ancient Egypt.

The Narmer Palette is a highly significant archaeological discovery in ancient Egyptian history. Narmer is considered the first pharaoh who unified Upper and Lower Egypt, and his reign marks the beginning of the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt. This palette is made of green schist, and it is adorned with carvings and hieroglyphics. It was discovered in 1897 at the temple site in the southern Egyptian city of Hierakonpolis.

On the two sides, there are different carvings. The front depicts Narmer wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt, wielding a scepter and a ceremonial curved knife to strike an enemy. Beside him, a servant follows, carrying his sandals, symbolizing Narmer's victory. The top of the back side shows Narmer wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt, symbolizing his control over Lower Egypt. In the middle, there are two long-necked animals being held by two men, possibly symbolizing the union of Upper and Lower Egypt. At the bottom, there is a scene of a bull attacking a city, further emphasizing Narmer's power and conquest.

Statue of Zoser

  • Location: Room 48, the room on the left side of the ground floor
  • Era: Early Dynastic Period, Third Dynasty (circa 2686-2613 BC)

The Statue of Zoser is one of the oldest life-size statues in ancient Egyptian history, made of limestone. The purpose of such statues was to provide a home for the "ka" (soul) of the pharaoh after death. The statue depicts Pharaoh Zoser seated on his throne. If you've ever visited Saqqara, you wouldn't be unfamiliar with this pharaoh; he is the one who built Egypt's oldest surviving pyramid—the Step Pyramid. In fact, this statue was also discovered at the Step Pyramid in Saqqara. Originally, this seated statue was placed in the pharaoh's tomb, facing north. The tiles behind the seated statue that we see in the museum were also found and restored from the pharaoh's tomb. This particular shade of blue is the color the ancient Egyptians imagined as the color of paradise.

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The Old Kingdom Period

Statuette of Khufu

  • Location: Room 42, the room on the left side of the ground floor
  • Era: Old Kingdom period, Fourth Dynasty

Khufu, the builder of the most famous pyramid in Egypt, is a name that should not be unfamiliar to those who have visited the Giza Pyramid Complex. The Khufu statue is a small ivory sculpture and is currently the only confirmed complete statue of Khufu, discovered in 1903 at the Kom el-Sultan site in Abydos. During the 1903 excavation, the archaeological team first found the body portion of the Khufu statue, and three weeks later discovered its head. The statue has since been restored to its complete form. Pharaoh Khufu is depicted wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt, dressed in a short pleated skirt (Shendyt), and holding a ceremonial flail in his right hand, symbolizing authority.

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Statue of Khafre

  • Location: Room 42, the room on the left side of the ground floor
  • Era: Old Kingdom period, Fourth Dynasty (approximately 2558-2532 BC)

Pharaoh Khafre is the builder of the second largest pyramid in the Great Pyramid of Giza and also the son of Khufu. This statue, which stands 168 cm tall, is made of diorite and depicts Pharaoh Khafre sitting on a throne, adorned with the Nemes headdress and a false beard. He is seated on a throne carved with lion’s paws, symbolizing a firm foundation of royal power. The sides of the throne are engraved with the Sema Tawy symbol, representing the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, comprised of hieroglyphs depicting a trachea surrounded by lotus and papyrus plants.

The facial expression of the pharaoh statue is calm, and the idealized upper body and muscle lines emphasize symmetry and control, aiming to capture the eternal and divine qualities of the pharaoh. The surface is finely polished, making the statue appear as if it reflects a divine glow.

The Black Triad Statues of Menkaure

  • Location: Room 47, the room on the left side of the ground floor.
  • Era: Old Kingdom period, Fourth Dynasty (circa 2532-2503 BCE)

The Black Triad Statues are a series of sculptures made from gray-green schist, each depicting the Pharaoh Menkaure with two goddesses. Pharaoh Menkaure is the builder of the smallest pyramid among the Three Great Pyramids of Giza. These statues appear quite complete with vivid expressions, making it hard to imagine they were created in the 26th century BCE.

These statues were discovered in 1908 in the Valley Temple of the Menkaure Pyramid at Giza. Originally, five statues were found, with one in each corridor, and since there are eight corridors, it is speculated that there might have originally been eight statues, representing eight different provinces. The characteristic of these triad statues is that they depict Pharaoh Menkaure with different deities and figures symbolizing the various nomes of Egypt. In these statues, Menkaure is usually in the center, with the goddess Hathor on the left and the local deities on the right. Of the five remaining statues, three are housed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, and the other two are in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston.

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Seated Scribe

  • Location: Room 42, the room on the left side of the ground floor
  • Era: Old Kingdom period

The statue of the Seated Scribe was unearthed in 1893 at the Saqqara necropolis and is considered one of the masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art. Unlike the statues of pharaohs, which are always imbued with a sense of divinity, the statues of nobles are more life-like, showcasing the realism style of ancient Egypt.

Scribes in ancient Egyptian society held a very important profession. Writing was considered a highly esteemed skill. They were responsible for recording various administrative and economic activities, serving as representatives of culture, knowledge, and literature. This position was considered one of the main architects of ancient Egyptian civilization and held a high status in temples and palaces.

This statue is made of painted limestone, demonstrating a very high level of craftsmanship, depicting an ancient Egyptian scribe at work. He is sitting with his legs crossed, right leg in front, holding a partly unrolled papyrus scroll in his left hand, while his right hand was originally holding a pen. He is wearing a stylish wig that exposes his ears, allowing him to hear more clearly. The eyes of the statue are made of rock crystal and copper, making them particularly vivid, with a far-off gaze that seems to indicate deep contemplation.

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Wooden status of Ka-Aper

  • Location: Room 42, the room on the left side of the ground floor
  • Era: Old Kingdom period, Fifth Dynasty

The Statue of the Village Chief, also known as the Statue of Kaaper, got its name due to its lifelike carving. When the workers discovered this statue, they felt that it closely resembled the village chief at the time, hence the nickname.

The statue actually represents an important figure in ancient Egyptian society, Ka-Aper. He was an Egyptian noble, serving as a priest and military scribe. The statue was discovered in 1860 at Saqqara. It is made of sycamore wood and stands about 112 centimeters tall. Ka-Aper holds a staff in his left hand while his right hand naturally hangs down. He is dressed in a simple short skirt, showcasing a robust body. The facial expression is realistic, and the statue's eyes, made from white stone, crystal, and copper, look extremely lifelike. This level of intricate carving is also very rare in ancient Egyptian wood sculptures. The statue was initially likely covered with a layer of plaster and painted, but now this layer of paint has disappeared, leaving only the natural color of the wood.

Next to it, there is a similar wooden sculpture of a woman, who is likely Ka'apei's wife.

Statues of Rahotep and Nofret

  • Room 32, the room on the left side of the ground floor
  • Era: Old Kingdom period, Fourth Dynasty

Rahotep and Nofret are a pair of statues made of painted limestone, created during the period of Pharaoh Sneferu of the Fourth Dynasty, around the same time as the Red Pyramid of Dahshur. These statues were discovered in 1871 in Rahotep’s tomb. At the time, workers were startled by their vivid eyes when illuminating the statues with torches. Rahotep was a high priest of the sun temple, a general in the army, and a director of construction, possibly a son of Sneferu. His statue depicts him wearing a short pleated skirt, a short wig, and with a realistic facial expression. Nofret’s statue shows her with shoulder-length hair adorned with a headband and dressed in exquisite attire. Her skin is depicted in light yellow, representing the standard complexion of ancient Egyptian women.

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Statue of Seneb and His Family

  • Location: Room 39, the room on the left side of the ground floor
  • Era: Old Kingdom period, Fifth Dynasty

The statue of Seneb and his family was discovered in 1926 at the Western Cemetery in Giza. What makes this statue unique is that it depicts a dwarf, Seneb, along with his family. Seneb held a prominent position in ancient Egyptian society and held multiple important roles, including "Confidant of the King," "Overseer of the Palace Weavers," "Overseer of Dwarfs," and several religious positions. This statue also demonstrates ancient Egyptian society's acceptance and respect for physical disabilities. His wife is by his side, and their two children stand in front, cleverly positioned at the level of his legs. Children's statues in ancient Egypt are typically depicted with shaved heads and fingers in their mouths, which indicates that they are still minors.

Panel of Meidum Geese

  • Location: Opposite Room 39, ground floor, left-side corridor
  • Era: Old Kingdom period, Fourth Dynasty

The Meidum Goose fresco is a masterpiece from the Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt, depicting a scene with six geese. It is considered one of the most beautiful paintings of ancient Egypt, with some referring to it as the "Mona Lisa of Egypt." Originally, the fresco adorned the walls of the passage in the temple of Nefermaat and Itet, members of the royal family during the reign of Pharaoh Sneferu. The painting utilized natural pigments, including white from limestone, red from hematite, and green from malachite, mixed with egg white. This method was quicker and more economical than carving reliefs into stone and did not require high-quality stone to create high-quality art. This particular work stands out for its exceptional painting technique. The fresco shows three pairs of geese symmetrically arranged, with some geese facing right and others facing left, creating a harmonious visual effect. The artist accurately represented two different species of geese, meticulously detailing the feathers and beaks, even including the serrated edges of their beaks, showcasing a high level of realism.

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Middle Kingdom

Statue of Mentuhotep II

  • Location: Room 26, on the left side of the ground floor
  • Period: Middle Kingdom Period, 11th Dynasty

Mentuhotep II was a pharaoh of the Eleventh Dynasty of ancient Egypt. He successfully reunified Egypt after the division and chaos of the First Intermediate Period. His reign marked the beginning of the Middle Kingdom period. At the time when the Middle Kingdom period began, Chinese history was just entering its first dynasty, the Xia Dynasty.

This statue was discovered in 1900 in the Temple of Montuhotep II. It is made of painted sandstone and depicts Montuhotep II wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt, dressed in a knee-length white Heb Sed (anniversary celebration) robe, and bearing a ritual beard. His arms are crossed over his chest, symbolizing his connection with the underworld god Osiris. This manner of depiction first appeared during his reign and became a model for statues in the subsequent Middle Kingdom period.

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The Sphinxes

  • Location: Room 21, Room 16, left side of the ground floor
  • Era: Middle Kingdom to New Kingdom period

On the left side of the ground floor, there are many sphinxes, ranging from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom periods. These sphinxes exhibit different styles.

New Kingdom Period

Temple of Hathor

  • Location: Room 12, the room on the left side of the ground floor
  • Era: New Kingdom, Eighteenth Dynasty

Hathor is an important goddess in ancient Egyptian mythology, symbolizing love, motherhood, beauty, music, dance, and fertility. She held a significant position in ancient Egyptian religion and was widely worshipped, especially during the New Kingdom period. The name Hathor signifies that she is the mother of the pharaoh. She is typically depicted as a woman wearing a headdress with cow horns and a solar disk, and sometimes she appears in the form of a cow.

The small sandstone shrine in the center of the room was discovered under the debris south of the Temple of Hatshepsut and was built during the reigns of Hatshepsut and her successor Thutmose III. The ceiling of the shrine is painted with a blue sky and yellow stars to mimic the firmament. The statues in the Temple of Hathor depict Hathor as the sacred cow, with her head adorned with a sun disk and two short feathers. The shrine also bears the name of Thutmose III's son and successor, Amenhotep II, indicating the royal connections of this shrine.

Statue of Amenhotep III

  • Location: Central Hall on the First Floor
  • Era: New Kingdom, Eighteenth Dynasty

In the most prominent spot of the museum hall stands a giant sculpture of Amenhotep III and his queen Tiye, with their three daughters at their feet. This statue originally stood in the temple of Amenhotep III on the west bank of Thebes. Amenhotep III was a significant pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of ancient Egypt, and his reign is regarded as a golden age of ancient Egypt. In fact, numerous statues of him can be found in various locations and within Egyptian museums, highlighting his power and influence. This statue, made of limestone, is approximately 7 meters tall and 4.4 meters wide, making it the largest known family group statue from ancient Egypt.

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  • Location: Central Hall on the First Floor
  • Era: Middle Kingdom to New Kingdom period

The central hall of the Egyptian Museum also displays several pyramidions. If you have visited the pyramids of Egypt, you will notice that they are missing their pyramidions. In fact, these pyramidions were important architectural and religious elements of ancient Egyptian pyramids, usually made of granite, limestone, or basalt. They were originally covered in gold foil to reflect sunlight and typically carved with religious symbols and the names of pharaohs, signifying the pharaoh's connection to the gods and their ascension to the afterlife. The existing pyramidions are preserved in museums, and those currently exhibited in the Egyptian Museum come from pyramids located all over Egypt.

Amarna Room

  • Location: Room 3, ground floor near the right staircase
  • Era: New Kingdom, Eighteenth Dynasty

Amarna refers to the period of significant religious and artistic changes led by Pharaoh Akhenaten. Originally named Amenhotep IV, he was the son of Amenhotep III. After his father's death, he came to power and initiated major religious reforms, abandoning the traditional polytheism. Together with his wife, Nefertiti, they promoted the worship of the singular god Aten, the sun disk, and transformed Egypt's religious and artistic landscape. The pharaoh's name was also changed to Akhenaten, meaning "Aten is pleased." The artistic style of this period emphasized naturalism and individual expression, often depicting figures with exaggerated body proportions and rich emotional expressions, which were markedly different from previous styles, showcasing more freedom and vitality. The Amarna room displays a variety of artworks from Akhenaten and his family, reflecting the unique artistic style and religious beliefs of that time.

The giant statue of Akhenaten in the Amarna Room showcases Akhenaten's unique body proportions and facial features, which greatly differ from traditional ancient Egyptian art styles. The statue depicts him wearing a robe and a blue crown, symbolizing his connection with Aten. Another noteworthy piece is the unfinished bust of Nefertiti. This unfinished bust is carved from limestone and includes her facial features such as high cheekbones, elongated eyes, and delicate lips.

Tutankhamen's Treasure

  • Location: Upper floor, after going up the stairs
  • Era: New Kingdom, Eighteenth Dynasty

Tutankhamun's tomb (KV62) was discovered in 1922 in the Valley of the Kings. It contained over 5,000 precious items, making it one of the most important archaeological discoveries. If you have visited Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings, you will find that this tomb is actually quite small compared to other Pharaohs' tombs, as Tutankhamun was a young Pharaoh who had a short life. Tutankhamun ascended to the throne at the age of nine and died at eighteen. He was the son of Akhenaten, and our understanding of his most significant political achievement is that shortly after his ascension, the government overturned the religious reforms, returning to the original polytheism, particularly the worship of the god Amun.

The treasures of Tutankhamun are the highlights of the Egyptian Museum, and photographing these exhibits is strictly prohibited. The inspection is very stringent; even taking out a mobile phone to look up information can result in a loud reprimand. Therefore, no pictures will be included here. Some of the most famous treasures include Tutankhamun's golden mask, the golden throne, and the winged scarab pendant. His mummy is encased in a series of four gilded wooden coffins, inside which there are three additional inner coffins. The innermost mummy wears a golden mask.

Some suggest that Tutankhamun himself might have been hastily buried after being murdered, which is why even historical records and grave robbers forgot about him. Perhaps for this reason, his tomb is the only intact royal tomb in the Valley of the Kings. When it was excavated in 1922, it caused a worldwide sensation. Although the scale of the burial chamber and the murals are far inferior to other tombs, it preserved the complete treasures of the pharaoh, prompting later generations to wonder just how many more treasures were originally housed in those larger and more splendid tombs.

Although photography is not allowed in the main exhibition, there are many other artifacts from Tutankhamun displayed in the corridor outside the exhibition room.

Tomb of Yuya and Thuyu

  • Location: Right side of the upper floor
  • Era: New Kingdom, Eighteenth Dynasty

The tomb of Yuya and Thuyu, located in the Valley of the Kings under the designation KV46, is a significant burial site from the Eighteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt. This married couple were the parents of Queen Tiye, the wife of Amenhotep III. If you have forgotten who this queen is, she is the one depicted in the large family statue of Amenhotep III's family located in the central hall on the first floor.

This tomb was discovered in 1905, and before the discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb, the artifacts found within it were considered the best-preserved by archaeologists. These artifacts included wooden and metal furniture, vehicles, various containers, and everyday items, all of which were in excellent condition. The mummies of Yuya and Tjuyu were also remarkably well-preserved, with even their hair still visible. The tomb also yielded Yuya's gold mask and Tjuyu's silver-decorated coffin. These artifacts are still displayed in the corridors of the Egyptian Museum, although their brilliance has been overshadowed by the treasures of Tutankhamun.

After the New Kingdom Period

Royal tombs of Tanis

  • Location: Next to the staircase on the right side of the ground floor
  • Era: Third Intermediate Period, 21st-22nd Dynasties

Tanis, located in the northeastern part of the Nile Delta in Egypt, was an important city during the 21st and 22nd Dynasties of ancient Egypt. The royal necropolis of Tanis was discovered in the early 20th century. Although it wasn't as lavish as the tomb of Tutankhamun, it revealed numerous valuable artifacts. Unfortunately, the discovery occurred during the time of the World Wars, so it didn't receive much attention, and even today, it still doesn't attract many visitors. Additionally, photography is prohibited in this area, which indicates the precious nature of the artifacts.

These tombs include the silver coffin, gold mask, and pectoral of Psusennes I. In ancient Egypt, silver was considered more valuable than gold, so even coffins were made of silver. The pectoral was made from gold, carnelian, lapis lazuli, feldspar, and red jasper. These precious artifacts are truly astonishing. During the Third Intermediate Period, ancient Egypt had already weakened, and nobles were mostly buried together, yet there was still so much wealth, which is quite incredible.

Graeco-Roman Room

  • Location: Right side of the ground floor
  • Era: Ptolemaic Dynasty – Greco-Roman Period

The Greco-Roman hall of the Egyptian Museum showcases artifacts from the time of Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt (circa 332 BCE) to the Roman Empire period (circa 30 BCE to 395 CE). The Ptolemaic dynasty, which was the 33rd dynasty, began after Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt in 332 BCE, established by Ptolemy I, one of Alexander the Great's generals. The Ptolemaic dynasty transformed Egypt into a Hellenistic kingdom. In 30 BCE, during the reign of the last ruler, Cleopatra VII, famously known as Cleopatra, Egypt was officially annexed by the Roman Empire and became one of its provinces.

Until the era of the last generation of Cleopatra of Egypt, when Egypt was annexed by the Roman Empire, Greek and Roman cultures began to merge with the adaptations of ancient Egyptian mythology. Significant changes occurred in art and religious beliefs, which were reflected in the artistic expressions and sculptures of that time. Carvings and reliefs often simultaneously reflected the characteristics of Greek and Roman art styles while retaining traditional elements of ancient Egypt, showcasing the results of cultural integration.

Egyptian Museum | More Ancient Egyptian Artifacts

Aside from the particularly famous key collections, there are numerous other collections that we simply do not have enough time to enumerate one by one. In fact, many artifacts within the Egyptian Museum are extremely well-preserved. If you visit the pyramids, temples, and other sites and have a sufficient understanding of Egyptian history before coming to the Egyptian Museum, it will be easier to appreciate their rarity. Here, I'll specifically mention some of the more abundant collections; if you have extra time, you can carefully examine and compare them one by one.


The Egyptian Museum houses a vast number of sarcophagi from various eras. Ancient Egyptian sarcophagi were the primary containers for burying nobles and pharaohs, usually placed within tomb chambers. They often feature carvings of hieroglyphs and mythological scenes. Sarcophagi were frequently made from limestone due to its relative ease of carving and processing. High-quality sarcophagi were often crafted from granite, basalt, or even marble. The sarcophagi from the Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom periods, which we saw on the first floor, are all rectangular in shape. By the New Kingdom period, human-shaped sarcophagi emerged, with the exterior mimicking the human body, and the carvings of the head and face becoming particularly detailed.

False door

False doors are often seen in ancient Egyptian tombs, especially in the inner chambers, and they are an important part of tomb architecture. If you visit historical sites like Saqqara, you can see many false doors. However, the preservation of these false doors in the tombs is usually not as good as those moved to museums, after years of erosion once the tombs are opened. When visiting museums, you can especially observe the colors of these false doors.

False doors were typically carved on the stone walls of tomb chambers, imitating the shape of real doors, complete with door frames, lintels, and doorposts. There was often a recess or niche in the center, symbolizing the opening of the door. Hieroglyphics and patterns were engraved on the door's surface, including the image of the deceased, official titles, and honorifics, as well as prayers and spells. The false door was believed to be a portal for the deceased's soul to enter the afterlife; through this door, the soul could enter the world of the living to receive offerings and prayers.

Some false doors are very special. For example, the false door behind the Ka'fre statue, which uses bas-relief on the door. If you look closely, typical false doors usually have inward carvings.


Some collections in the Egyptian Museum include well-preserved smaller chambers, which have been entirely or partially relocated to the museum for preservation. Among the exhibits from the First Intermediate Period, there is a very well-preserved tomb that was moved from Saqqara to the museum, with carved murals that are still clearly distinguishable.


In addition to the most famous statues already mentioned, there are many important statues of pharaohs in the Egyptian Museum that were removed from the pyramids of the pharaohs, which are often overlooked because the history of ancient Egypt is so long.

I'll just give a few examples, such as the statue of Pharaoh Userkaf from the Fifth Dynasty, which is also very important.

Another example, Hatshepsut was a female pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt. She was known for her wise and stable rule, making her one of the most famous female rulers in ancient Egyptian history. Her statues can be seen both in the room where the Hathor Temple is located and in the corridors outside. This room and its surroundings also contain many artifacts found in the southern part of the Hatshepsut Temple at Deir el-Bahari.

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Painted plaster floor

In the central hall, a painted plaster floor fragment from the Amarna period is on display, which is a rather rare artifact. Despite being over three thousand years old, one can still generally observe the surface that has been meticulously polished and painted with rich, colorful patterns. The colors include blue, green, yellow, and brown. The floor features depictions of natural landscapes, wetlands, and river scenes, flying wild ducks, reeds, and papyrus plants, among others.

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Papyrus paintings

On the staircase between the ground and upper floors, a series of well-preserved papyrus paintings and calligraphy works are displayed. Some of the paintings depict scenes of daily life in ancient Egypt, mythological stories, and the images of gods and goddesses, with detailed craftsmanship and vibrant colors. These works also provide us with a better understanding of the designs commonly found on some murals.

Wooden Model Display

In the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, there is a specialized air-conditioned room that exhibits various wooden models, primarily from the Middle Kingdom period of ancient Egypt. These models showcase daily life, crafts, and military activities of that era. The colors of these wooden artworks remain well-preserved, featuring scenes such as ancient Egyptian farmers plowing fields and herding cattle, baking bread and brewing beer, wooden army models, different types of boats including those used for fishing and those used for funeral rituals, and more.


The Egyptian Museum displays many well-preserved mummies. In the hallway on the left side of the second floor, there are now fewer visitors in this area because some of the exhibits have already been moved to the new museum.

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Further reading

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